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Kruger: Appeal Allowed … Crown Awarded Costs

How should the Tax Court award costs where the taxpayer’s appeal was allowed but no changes were made to the assessment at issue?

This unusual situation was considered by the Tax Court in Kruger Incorporated v. The Queen (2016 TCC 14).

In the main appeal (2015 TCC 119, under appeal to the Federal Court of Appeal (A-296-15)), the Tax Court had allowed the taxpayer’s appeal on the basis that certain foreign exchange option contracts should be valued in accordance with subsection 10(1) of the Income Tax Act (see our previous post here). However, success in the appeal was divided because certain of the taxpayer’s other foreign exchange option contracts were to be valued on a realization basis, as assessed.

The Tax Court asked the parties to provide submissions on costs.

The taxpayer asked for costs on the basis that the appeal had been allowed. The Crown asked for costs on the basis that the result of the proceeding was substantially in its favour as to the amounts in issue and the determination of the issue.

Interestingly, after the Court’s decision allowing the appeal, the parties discovered that the underlying assessment would not change. The Tax Court called this an “anomaly”.

The Tax Court stated that, despite its decision allowing the appeal, the Crown was the successful party. The case law on costs cautions against awarding amounts based on the success of particular arguments (see, for example, General Electric Capital Canada Inc. v. The Queen (2010 TCC 490)). However, the Tax Court noted that this was not a case in which a party won a Pyrrhic victory, as each party had been successful to different degrees.

The Court considered the factors listed in section 147 of the Tax Court of Canada Rules (General Procedure), including the amounts in issue, the volume of work, the complexity of the matter, and the conduct of the parties. The Court noted that two of the Crown’s witnesses were of significant assistance to the Court.

The Court concluded that no rule prohibits a judge from distributing costs between the parties, although this is not encouraged. In this case, it was appropriate to recognize the Crown’s success.

The Court awarded costs to the Crown in respect of two witnesses, and 50 percent of all other costs. In the Court’s view, this was an unconventional but reasonable award.

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Kruger: Appeal Allowed … Crown Awarded Costs

Tax Court Establishes Motion Days in Toronto

The Tax Court of Canada has established a pilot project for regular motion days in Toronto for the period of February to September 2016. The Court will review the initiative in September 2016. The project may be expanded to other cities.

The first motion day is scheduled for Monday February 22, 2016, followed by Monday March 21 and Tuesday March 29. Subsequently, motions will be scheduled every first and third Monday through to the end of September. If the motion day falls on a statutory holiday, the motion day will be scheduled the following week.

The Court also reminded the public and counsel of the Court’s practice for the requirements and scheduling of motions under the General Procedure, as described in the Court’s Practice Note No. 2 (amended).

Tax Court Establishes Motion Days in Toronto

CRA Ends Political Activities Audit Program for Charities

On January 20, the CRA announced that its controversial political activities audit program for charities has been wound-down.

From the CRA news release:

The results of the political activities audit program have shown substantial compliance with the rules regarding charities’ involvement in political activities. In light of these outcomes, the political activities program will be concluded once the remaining audits have been finalized.

Our Government’s commitment to openness and transparency includes providing more information on the regulation of charities to the public and the charitable sector in a timely manner and in ensuring the engagement of the sector. In order to achieve this, Minister Lebouthillier also announced that the CRA will publish an annual report to provide the public with more information about its activities and its contribution to an effective regulatory framework for registered charities.

Minister Lebouthillier is committed to engaging with key stakeholders and has asked CRA’s Charities Directorate to find ways to further clarify the rules governing a registered charity’s involvement in political activities. Details of the consultations will be made public as they become available.

See our previous posts on the political activities audit program here and here.

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CRA Ends Political Activities Audit Program for Charities

Yes, Those Emails are Tax Phishing Scams

We were alerted today that some individuals had received fake emails informing the recipient that he/she had received an Interac email money transfer (i.e., a surprise refund).

The emails arrive with the subject line “INTERAC e-Transfer from Canada Revenue Agency System” and appear to emanate from Interac, Dentons, or canadiantaxlitigation.com.

Those emails are a scam. If you receive one of these emails do not click any links in such emails, and do not confirm or provide any personal data. 

Several concerned individuals forwarded sample emails to us:

From: “notify@payments.interac.ca” <admin@canadiantaxlitigation.com>

Date: October 29, 2015 at 2:56:31 PM EDT

To: name@email.com

Subject: INTERAC e-Transfer from Canada Revenue Agency System

<>Dear Tax Payer,

<>Canada Revenue Agency has sent you an INTERAC e-Transfer (previously INTERAC Email Money Transfer).

<>Amount: $741.28
<>Sender’s Message: A message was not provided
<>Expiry Date: 30 October 2015

<>Action Required:
<>To deposit your money, click here: http:/www.cra-arc.gc.ca/confirm/interac/services/REF=IDREFCASE741.28

<>2015 Canada Revenue Agency (CRA) Support

Please see our previous post on fraudulent tax scams here and here.

The CRA’s Security page is available here.

These email tax scams should be reported to the Canadian Anti-Fraud Centre.

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Yes, Those Emails are Tax Phishing Scams

NHL Team Denied Deduction for Road Meals?

We noticed these recent items regarding the U.S. IRS denial of a 100% deduction by the NHL Boston Bruins hockey club in respect of the team’s provision of meals to employees during road trips.

In Canada, section 67.1 of the Income Tax Act limits the deduction of meals and entertainment to 50% of the lesser of the actual cost or a reasonable amount. There are several exceptions to this general rule (see subsection 67.1(2)), including exceptions for meals provided in the ordinary course of a business of providing meals and entertainment for compensation, fund-raising events, meal costs billed directly to a client, meals provided to employees at remote work locations, or holiday parties. If an exception applies, the taxpayer may deduct 100% of the cost.

We are reminded of the Canadian case of Pink Elephant Inc. v. The Queen (2011 TCC 396), in which the taxpayer was successful in establishing that the exception for meals provided in the course of a business of providing meals for compensation applied in respect of the taxpayer’s provision of meals during its information technology training seminars.

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NHL Team Denied Deduction for Road Meals?

CRA Publishes Reminder on Charities’ Political Activities

Political activities have been a hot topic for the CRA’s Charities Directorate in the last few years.

In the CRA’s 2015 Program Update, the Charities Directorate stated that its recent political activity audit included 60 charities, with various results (i.e., education letters, compliance agreements, revocations, etc.).

Generally, a registered charity may not engage in partisan political activities, but a modest amount of political activities are permitted (i.e., those political activities that are non-partisan and connected and subordinate to the charity’s purposes). As a general guideline, a registered charity cannot devote more than 10 percent of its total resources to political activities (the CRA applies slightly different percentages to small charities).

Political activities were revisited again recently when the Charities Directorate published an “Advisory on partisan political activities”, which stated:

Since we are in an election period, we remind registered charities that they are prohibited from devoting any of their resources to partisan political activities. A partisan political activity is one that involves the direct or indirect support of, or opposition to, any political party at any time, whether during an election period or not, or a candidate for public office.

Given the time and resources spent by the CRA educating the charitable sector on the subject, most or all charities should not be surprised to see this latest update from the CRA.

However, a surprising part of the Advisory may be the following statements:

Charities that use the Internet or social media to post information should ensure the information does not contain partisan political statements. Also, the information should not link to statements made by a third party that support or oppose a candidate or political party.

When a charity invites comments on its website, blogs, or on social media, it should monitor them for partisan political statements and remove, edit, or moderate such statements within a reasonable time.

Charities should be aware of the CRA’s views on social media and political activities, and during the 2015 federal election charities should be careful to ensure that any invited comments on a charity’s website, blog, Facebook page or Twitter account do not conflict with the CRA’s views on partisan political activities.

Charities may wish to consult their professional advisers if there are any questions about compliance with the Income Tax Act and the CRA’s views.

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CRA Publishes Reminder on Charities’ Political Activities

Beware of Telephone Tax Scams

Several clients have contacted me in recent weeks after receiving telephone calls from individuals who claim to be from the Canada Revenue Agency.

Typically, the caller will provide his name, an employee ID, a CRA office address and telephone number with a Canadian area code.

The caller is aggressive, alleges that the taxpayer owes an amount to the CRA, and demands immediate payment. The caller also threatens arrest or other punishments if the amount is not paid.

These telephone calls are a scam. If you receive one of these calls, do not provide or confirm any personal data.

The CRA has recently issued a warning about this type of telephone scam, and a news report on the scam is available here.

These telephone tax scam calls should be reported to the Canadian Anti-Fraud Centre.

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Beware of Telephone Tax Scams

FCA Dismisses Appeal of Revocation of Charity Status

In Public Television Association of Quebec v. M.N.R. (2015 FCA 170), the Federal Court of Appeal dismissed the appeal by the Public Television Association of Quebec (“PTAQ”) of the CRA’s decision to revoke PTAQ’s registered charity status.

Background

PTAQ was constituted to advance education through the production, distribution and promotion of non-commercial, educational television programs and films.

Generally, PTAQ carried out its charitable activities through an intermediary: Vermont ETV Incorporated (aka Vermont PBS) (“VPT”) pursuant to a fundraising agreement and a broadcasting agreement.

Under these agreements, PTAQ would purchase a slate of educational programming from VPT, and such programming would then be broadcast on certain television stations. VPT would, in the course of various fundraising activities, raise funds from Canadian donors as an agent of PTAQ, which would issue donation receipts to the Canadian donors.

Charitable Activities

Generally, a Canadian charity may carry out its charitable activities in two ways: directly, or through the use of an intermediary. If the charity uses an intermediary to carry out charitable activities, the charity must maintain direction and control of its resources (see CG-004 “Using an Intermediary to Carry out a Charity’s Activities within Canada” (June 20, 2011)). The CRA’s scrutiny of a charity’s use of an intermediary is greater where the activities are carried on outside Canada (see CG-002 “Canadian Registered Charities Carrying Out Activities Outside Canada” (July 8, 2010)).

In this case, the CRA reviewed PTAQ’s corporate objects and activities and determined that PTAQ had failed to devote all of its resources to its own charitable activities. The CRA issued a Notice of Intention to Revoke pursuant to paragraph 168(1)(b) of the Income Tax Act. PTAQ filed a Notice of Objection under subsection 168(4) of the Act, and the CRA confirmed the proposal to revoke PTAQ’s registration.

Pursuant to subsection 172(3) of the Act, an appeal of the CRA’s decision to revoke a charity’s registration is made directly to the Federal Court of Appeal (rather than the Tax Court).

Appeal

On appeal of a proposed revocation in respect of a charity that has used an intermediary to carry out charitable activities, the charity must adduce evidence that it was carrying on charitable works on its own behalf and not merely acting as a conduit (i.e., the charity must establish that it maintained direction and control of its resources).

The Court of Appeal dismissed the appeal and held that PTAQ had failed to establish the CRA’s conclusion that PTAQ was not devoting all of its resources to its own charitable activities – which was a question of mixed fact and law – was unreasonable.

The Court of Appeal stated:

[55] Based on the evidence outlined above, I conclude that it was reasonable for the Minister to determine that PTAQ failed to maintain direction and control over its resources as it did not devote all its resources to its own charitable activities. The provisions of the broadcasting and fundraising agreements were not followed or respected. PTAQ has not adduced evidence that it exercised proper control over the activities of its agent by demonstrating how it monitored the cost of the broadcasting activities, the donations received and the fundraising. It has not established how the Minister erred in coming to the conclusion that PTAQ is only used to issue receipts for donations received by VPT from Canadian donors, as the documentation contained in the record does not overturn the factual findings noted above with respect to the broadcasting and fundraising agreements.

The CRA’s revocation and the Court of Appeal’s decision are stern reminders of the necessity for Canadian charities that are essentially “friends of” foreign charitable organizations to implement measures that will ensure that direction and control of the Canadian charity’s resources remain with the Canadian charity.

Further, such direction and control must in fact be exercised by the Canadian charity, and evidence of such direction and control should be recorded in the Canadian charity’s corporate documents (i.e., meeting minutes, reports, correspondence, etc.).

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FCA Dismisses Appeal of Revocation of Charity Status

SCC Dismisses Appeal in Tax Advisor Penalty Case

The Supreme Court of Canada has dismissed the appeal of the taxpayer and determined that the tax advisor penalty in section 163.2 of the Income Tax Act is administrative in nature.

The Court’s 4-3 decision in Guindon v. The Queen (2015 SCC 41) (Docket No. 35519) has far-reaching implications for Canadian taxpayers and their professional advisors.

While the majority of the Court (Rothstein, Cromwell, Moldaver and Gascon) exercised its discretion to consider the taxpayer’s constitutional arguments despite the taxpayer’s failure to provide notice of constitutional question, the Court held that the penalty under section 163.2 was not criminal in nature:

[89] We conclude that the proceeding under s. 163.2  is not criminal in nature and does not lead to the imposition of true penal consequences. We agree with Stratas J.A., writing for the Federal Court of Appeal, that “the assessment of a penalty under s. 163.2  is not the equivalent of being ‘charged with a [criminal] offence.’ Accordingly, none of the s. 11  rights apply in s. 163.2  proceedings”: para. 37.

[90] Finally, we note that even though s. 11  of the Charter  is not engaged by s. 163.2  of the ITA , those against whom penalties are assessed are not left without recourse or protection. They have a full right of appeal to the Tax Court of Canada and, as the respondent pointed out in her factum, have access to other administrative remedies: R.F., at para. 99; see, e.g., ITA , s. 220(3.1) .

In a concurring opinion that dissented on the issue of the notice requirement, Justices Abella, Karakatsanis and Wagner held that the taxpayer’s failure to provide notice of constitutional question in the Tax Court or Federal Court of Appeal was fatal to her appeal.

See our previous posts on the Guindon case here and here.

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SCC Dismisses Appeal in Tax Advisor Penalty Case

SCC to Decide Tax Advisor Penalty Case on July 31

What is the nature of the third-party penalty in section 163.2 of the Income Tax Act? That question will be answered by the Supreme Court of Canada when it decides the case of Guindon v. The Queen (Docket No. 35519) on Friday July 31.

See our previous posts on the Guindon case here and here.

In Guindon, the Tax Court found that the penalty imposed under section 163.2 is a criminal penalty, not a civil one, and therefore subject to the protection of (inter alia) section 11 of the Charter of Rights and Freedoms.

The Federal Court of Appeal reversed on the basis that Ms. Guindon did not provide notice of a constitutional question, and thus the Tax Court lacked jurisdiction to make an order on the nature of section 163.2. In any event, the Federal Court of Appeal also stated that the penalty under section 163.2 was not criminal in nature, and hence, was not subject to Charter protections.

The Supreme Court heard arguments in Guindon in December 2014, and the Court’s decision will have significant implications for tax professionals across Canada.

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SCC to Decide Tax Advisor Penalty Case on July 31